Ultimately, I agree with Miller et al. that the moral principles which govern clinical medical practice should not be confused with the moral principles which should govern clinical medical research. While the Principles of Non-Maleficence , Clinical Equipoise , and Beneficence  ought to be strictly observed within the context of clinical practice, the differences in purposes, methodology, and costs of clinical practice compared to clinical research make it clear that they are not the same and should not be treated as such. But I am also sympathetic, at least in part, to Freedman et al. in that there is still room for significant improvement. As a result, I seek to argue for a kind of middle ground in this particular debate.
Physician-Assisted Suicide/Physician-Assisted Death/Voluntary Euthanasia
In what follows, I will present a brief typology of some of the various arguments that are commonly raised against PAS/PAD/VE. This typological sketch will proceed in broad strokes. The general categories that I used to group these various arguments are: methodological arguments, consequentialist arguments, legal arguments, epistemological arguments, and moral arguments.
To the Five Burroughs (Methodological, Consequentialist, Legal, Epistemological, and Moral)
Though many things can be (and have been) said about Nietzsche’s polemic work, The Antichrist, this post is merely about some of the more coherent quotes, explanations, and thoughts contained within the work. As is commonly known, Nietzsche’s writing style was not crisp, clean, and precise like the styles of various analytical philosophers in contemporary times. Rather, Nietzsche wrote like he thought: like a madman.
“What is good? All that enhances the feeling of power, the Will to Power, and power itself in man. What is bad? All that proceeds from weakness. What is happiness? The feeling that power is increasing, that resistance has been overcome. Not contentment, but more power; not peace at any price, but war; not virtue, but efficiency. The weak and the botched shall perish; first principle of our humanity. And they ought even to be helped to perish. What is more harmful than any vice? Practical sympathy with all the botched and the weak – Christianity.” -Section 2
“Mankind does not represent a development towards a better, stronger or higher type, in the sense in which this is supposed to occur today. “Progress” is merely a modern idea – that is to say, a false idea…The process of evolution does not by any means imply elevation, enhancement and increasing strength.” -Section 4